Obstetrical correlates and perinatal consequences of neonatal hypoglycemia in term infants

D Ogunyemi, P Friedman, K Betcher, A Whitten, N Sugiyama, L Qu, Amitai Kohn, Holtrop Paul
Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2017, 30 (11): 1372-1377

OBJECTIVE: To determine independent perinatal and intrapartum factors associated with neonatal hypoglycemia.

METHOD: Of singleton pregnancies delivered at term in 2013; 318 (3.8%) neonates diagnosed with hypoglycemia were compared to 7955 (96.2%) neonate controls with regression analysis.

RESULTS: Regression analysis showed that independent prenatal factors were multiparity (odds-ratio [OR] = 1.61), gestational age (OR = 0.68), gestational diabetes (OR = 0.22), macrosomia (OR = 4.87), small for gestational age neonate [SGA] (OR = 6.83) and admission cervical dilation (OR = 0.79). For intrapartum factors, only cesarean section (OR = 1.57) and last cervical dilation (OR = 0.92) were independently significantly associated with neonatal hypoglycemia. For biologically plausible risk factors, independent factors were cesarean section (OR = 4.18), gentamycin/clindamycin in labor (OR = 5.35), gestational age (OR = 0.59) and macrosomia (OR = 5.62). Mothers of babies with neonatal hypoglycemia had more blood loss and longer hospital stays, while neonates with hypoglycemia had worse umbilical cord gases, more neonatal hypoxic conditions, neonatal morbidities and NICU admissions.

CONCLUSION: Diabetes was protective of neonatal hypoglycemia, which may be explained by optimum maternal glucose management; nevertheless macrosomia was independently predictive of neonatal hypoglycemia. Cesarean section and decreasing gestational age were the most consistent independent risk factors followed by treatment for chorioamnionitis and SGA. Further studies to evaluate these observations and develop preventive strategies are warranted.

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