JOURNAL ARTICLE

Pediatric thalamic glioma with H3F3A K27M mutation, which was detected before and after malignant transformation: a case report

Kenichi Ishibashi, Takeshi Inoue, Hiroko Fukushima, Yusuke Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Hiroaki Sakamoto, Kai Yamasaki, Jyunichi Hara, Tomoko Shofuda, Daiksuke Kanematsu, Ema Yoshioka, Yonehiro Kanemura
Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery 2016, 32 (12): 2433-2438
27392443

PURPOSE: Histone H3.3 (H3F3A) mutation in the codon for lysine 27 (K27M) has been found as driver mutations in pediatric glioblastoma and has been suggested to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of thalamic gliomas and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. We report a case of thalamic glioma with H3F3A K27M mutation, which was detected in both the primary tumor diagnosed as diffuse astrocytoma obtained during the first surgery and also in the tumor diagnosed as anaplastic astrocytoma obtained at the second surgery.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old girl presented with mild headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small intraaxial lesion in the left thalamus, which increased in size. Stereotactic tumor biopsy was performed 2 years after the initial diagnosis, and a pathological diagnosis of diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade 2) was made. The tumor grew further and showed contrast enhancement on MRI despite 16 months of chemotherapy. Surgical removal via the transcallosal approach was then performed, and postoperative pathological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade 3), indicating malignant transformation of the tumor. Molecular diagnosis of tumor tissue obtained at first and second surgeries revealed H3F3A K27M mutation in both primary and secondary specimens.

CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates minute neuroradiological and pathological features of malignant transformation from thalamic low grade glioma with H3F3A K27M mutation. It is noteworthy that this mutation was found in this case when the tumor was still a low-grade glioma. Tissue sampling for genetic analysis is useful in patients with thalamic gliomas to predict the clinical course and efficacy of treatments.

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