Comparative Study
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Fungal Peritonitis: Underestimated Disease in Critically Ill Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Spontaneous Peritonitis.

INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous peritonitis, especially spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP), is an important and potentially fatal complication in patients with endstage liver disaese. We evaluated potential risk factors, microbiological findings, and outcome of patients with SFP compared to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in critically ill patients.

METHODS: Retrospective analyses of critically ill patients with suspected spontaneous peritonitis.

RESULTS: Out of 205 patients, 20 (10%) had SFP, 28 (14%) had SBP, 48 (24%) had peritonitis without microbiological findings (SP) and 109 (52%) had no-peritonitis (NP). APACHE II and SOFA score were significantly higher in patients with SFP (26; 22-28; p<0.004 and 16; 14-18; p<0.002), SBP (26; 22-28; p<0.004 and 16; 14-18; p<0.002) and SP (24; 18-30; p<0.045 and 14; 10-18; p<0.044) as compared to NP (22; 16-24 and 12; 10-14). CHILD Pugh classification was mainly CHILD C and MELD Score was in patients with SFP (34; 18-40; p<0.001), SBP (32;12-40 p<0.002) and SP (29; 14-40 p<0.003) significantly higher as compared to NP (25;8-40). Nosocomial peritonitis could be significantly more often found in patients with SFP (65%; p<0.023) and SBP (62%, p<0.030) as compared to SP (51 p = 0.243) and NP (45%). Antibiotic pretreatment last 3 month prior peritonitis was significantly more often in patients with SFP (85%; p<0.002), SBP (71%, p<0.033), and SP (56; p<0.040) as compared to NP (33%). Candida albicans (60%; 12/20) was the most common isolated fungus, followed by Candida glabrata (13%) and Candida krusei (13%). Mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with SFP (90%, p<0.001), followed by SBP (75%; p<0.001) and SP (69%; p<0.001) as compared to NP (45%).

CONCLUSION: SFP is not a rare complication in end stage liver disease which is associated with increased mortality. Physicians should be aware of SFP in patients with CHILD C liver cirrhosis, elevated MELD score, antibiotic pretreatment and nosocomial peritonitis.

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