Clinical applications of spectral domain optical coherence tomography in retinal diseases

R K Murthy, Shamim Haji, Kumar Sambhav, Sandeep Grover, K V Chalam
Biomedical Journal 2016, 39 (2): 107-20
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced about two decades ago and has revolutionized ophthalmic practice in recent years. It is a noninvasive noncontact imaging modality that provides a high-resolution cross-sectional image of the cornea, retina, choroid and optic nerve head, analogous to that of the histological section. Advances in OCT technology in signal detection technique from time-domain (TD) to spectral-domain (SD) detection have given us the potential to study various retinal layers more precisely and in less time. SD-OCT better delineates structural changes and fine lesions in the individual retinal layers. Thus, we have gained substantial information about the pathologic and structural changes in ocular conditions with primary or secondary retinal involvement. This review we discuss the clinical application of currently available SD-OCT in various retinal pathologies. Furthermore, highlights the benefits of SD-OCT over TD. With the introduction of enhanced depth imaging and swept - source OCT visualization of the choroid and choriocapillaris has become possible. Therefore, OCT has become an indispensable ancillary test in the diagnosis and management of diseases involving the retina and/or the choroid. As OCT technology continues to develop further it will provide new insights into the retinal and choroidal structure and the pathogenesis of posterior segment of the eye.


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