Atrial mapping during pulmonary vein pacing: a novel maneuver to detect and close residual conduction gaps in an ablation line

Jefferson Salas, Eduardo Castellanos, Rafael Peinado, Sergio Madero, Teresa Barrio-López, Mercedes Ortiz, Jesús Almendral
Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing 2016, 47 (3): 299-307

BACKGROUND: Location of residual conduction gaps on ablation lines around pulmonary veins (PV) is challenging, and several maneuvers have been described. Atrial mapping during PV pacing-the "pace and map" maneuver-could localize gaps.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 209 patients undergoing PV isolation at a single institution over a 25-month period. In 24 (11.4 %) patients, 26 PV remained connected after an ablation line and an initial conventional gap closure protocol. The atrial side of the ablation line was mapped with the ablation catheter during PV pacing, and the earliest site was considered a gap site. Ablation at these gap sites resulted in bidirectional PV conduction block in 22 PV (85 %) in 21 patients (88 %), after 2.2 ± 1.6 radiofrequency applications and 8.2 ± 4.8 min. Early PV reconnection (≥20 min) occurred in 0 PV (0 %). During a mean follow-up of 12 ± 6 months, eight patients (33 %) had arrhythmia recurrences.

CONCLUSIONS: The "pace and map" maneuver is a relatively simple and efficacious means to identify gaps in ablation lines around PV, focusing on the atrial rather than the PV side of the line. It could be considered among the ways to eliminate residual conduction gaps.

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