Linking mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic syndrome and stress signaling in Neurodegeneration

Saurabh Kumar Jha, Niraj Kumar Jha, Dhiraj Kumar, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease 2017, 1863 (5): 1132-1146
Mounting evidence suggests a link between metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). For instance, accumulated Aβ oligomer is enhancing neuronal Ca2+ release and neural NO where increased NO level in the brain through post translational modification is modulating the level of insulin production. It has been further confirmed that irrespective of origin; brain insulin resistance triggers a cascade of the neurodegeneration phenomenon which can be aggravated by free reactive oxygen species burden, ER stress, metabolic dysfunction, neuorinflammation, reduced cell survival and altered lipid metabolism. Moreover, several studies confirmed that MetS and diabetic sharing common mechanisms in the progression of AD and NDDs where mitochondrial dynamics playing a critical role. Any mutation in mitochondrial DNA, exposure of environmental toxin, high-calorie intake, homeostasis imbalance, glucolipotoxicity is causative factors for mitochondrial dysfunction. These cumulative pleiotropic burdens in mitochondria leads to insulin resistance, increased ROS production; enhanced stress-related enzymes that is directly linked MetS and diabetes in neurodegeneration. Since, the linkup mechanism between mitochondrial dysfunction and disease phenomenon of both MetS and NDDs is quite intriguing, therefore, it is pertinent for the researchers to identify and implement the therapeutic interventions for targeting MetS and NDDs. Herein, we elucidated the pertinent role of MetS induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons and their consequences in NDDs. Further, therapeutic potential of well-known biomolecules and chaperones to target altered mitochondria has been comprehensively documented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases - edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy.

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