Nephrotic syndrome-induced thromboembolism in adults

Hasan F Al-Azzawi, Onyekachi C Obi, Javeryah Safi, Mingchen Song
International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science 2016, 6 (2): 85-8
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well-defined syndrome characterized by the presence of nephrotic range of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-reported complication associated with NS, the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, treatment options, and preventative strategies are not well-established. Thromboembolic phenomena in nephrotic patients are postulated to be a result of the urinary loss of antithrombotic factors by affected kidneys and increased production of prothrombotic factors by the liver. Most cases of VTE associated with NS reported in the literature have a known diagnosis of NS. We report a case of a young female presenting with dyspnea and a pulmonary embolism. She was found to have NS and right renal vein thrombosis. We review the available literature to highlight the best approach for clinicians treating VTE in patients with NS.

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