Intracerebral Hematoma Occurring During Warfarin Versus Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

Haruhiko Takahashi, Yasushi Jimbo, Hiroki Takano, Hiroshi Abe, Masahito Sato, Yukihiko Fujii, Yoshifusa Aizawa
American Journal of Cardiology 2016 July 15, 118 (2): 222-5
The neuroradiological findings and its outcomes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were compared between the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy and warfarin therapy. In the latest 3 years, 13 cases of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation on NOAC therapy were admitted for ICH. For comparison, 65 age- and gender-comparable patients with ICH on warfarin therapy were recruited. Three NOACs had been prescribed: dabigatran (n = 4), rivaroxaban (n = 2), and apixaban (n = 7). The average ages were 76 ± 9 and 78 ± 8 years in the warfarin (n = 65) and NOAC groups (n = 13), respectively. There was no difference in the clinical features, including the CHADS2 score or HAS-BLED score: 2.62 ± 1.31 versus 2.62 ± 1.33, or 1.09 ± 0.43 versus 1.00 ± 0.41, for the warfarin and NOAC groups, respectively. The volume of ICH <30 ml was found in 84.6% of the patients on NOACs, but it was found in 53.8% of the patients on warfarin (p = 0.0106). The expansion of hematoma was limited to 7 patients (10.8%) of the warfarin group. A lower hospital mortality and better modified Rankin Scale were observed in the NOAC group than in the warfarin group: 1 (7.7%) versus 27 (41.5%; p = 0.0105) and 3.2 ± 1.4 versus 4.5 ± 1.6 (p = 0.0057), respectively. In conclusion, ICH on NOAC therapy had smaller volume of hematoma with reduced rate of expansion and decreased mortality compared with its occurrence on warfarin.

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