Comparative effectiveness of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy in super obese patients

Adam C Celio, Qiang Wu, Kevin R Kasten, Mark L Manwaring, Walter J Pories, Konstantinos Spaniolas
Surgical Endoscopy 2017, 31 (1): 317-323

BACKGROUND: The disproportionate increase in the super obese (SO) is a hidden component of the current obesity pandemic. Data on the safety and efficacy of bariatric procedures in this specific patient population are limited. Our aim is to assess the comparative effectiveness of the two most common bariatric procedures in the SO.

METHODS: Using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database from 2007 to 2012, we compared SO patients (BMI ≥ 50) undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Stepwise logistic regression modeling was used to calculate a propensity score to adjust for patient demographics and comorbidities.

RESULTS: We identified 50,987 SO patients who underwent RYGB (N = 42,119) or SG (N = 8868). There was no difference in adjusted overall 30-day complication rate comparing RYGB and SG patients (11.5 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.250). RYGB patients had higher adjusted rates of 30-day mortality (0.3 vs. 0.2 %, p = 0.042), reoperation (4.0 vs. 2.4 %, p < 0.001), and readmission (6.9 vs. 5.5 %, p < 0.001) compared to SG patients. The percent of total weight loss (%TWL) was significantly higher for RYGB patients compared to SG at 3 months (14.1 vs. 13.1 %, p < 0.001), 6 months (25.2 vs. 22.4 %, p < 0.001), and 12 months (34.5 vs. 29.7 %, p < 0.001). RYGB patients had increased resolution of all measured comorbidities: diabetes mellitus (61.6 vs. 50.8 %, p < 0.001), hypertension (43.1 vs. 34.5 %, p < 0.001), gastroesophageal reflux disease (53.9 vs. 32.5 %, p < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (39.7 vs. 32.5 %, p < 0.001), and obstructive sleep apnea (42.8 vs. 40.6 %, p = 0.058) at 12 months compared to SG patients.

CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in comorbidity improvement and resolution as well as weight loss between RYGB and SG in the SO population. There was no difference in overall 30-day complications, but more RYGB patients required readmission and reoperation. However, RYGB was considerably more effective in controlling obesity-related comorbidities. Our results favor performance of RYGB in SO patients of appropriate risk.

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