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Three-Dimensional Imaging of Urethral Stricture Disease and Urethral Pathology for Operative Planning.

Diagnosing urethral pathology can prove difficult, as clinically, the presentation is often nonspecific and may be suggestive of multiple etiologies. Therefore, detailed and accurate urethral imaging in both males and females is critical. Since the early 1900s, conventional imaging studies including RUG and VCUG, with adjunct cystourethroscopy, have remained the gold standard diagnostic techniques to evaluate urethral pathology. However, limitations of conventional imaging have generated interest in finding alternative imaging modalities with comparable, if not superior, diagnostic accuracy, the goal being a more complete assessment of urethral pathology and anatomy that would allow for appropriate surgical planning. Imaging modalities with three-dimensional (3D) capabilities may provide more comprehensive information regarding urethral diseases through a more detailed illustration of periurethral soft tissue structures. Whether or not these imaging modalities will replace conventional studies is unclear, though there is an increasing body of literature that support their use.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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