[Inhalation and intravenous anesthesia in pediatric patients]

M Jöhr
Der Anaesthesist 2016, 65 (6): 415-22
Inhalation as well as total intravenous anesthesia have both advantages and disadvantages. The pros of an inhalation technique are mask induction without the initial need for intravenous access and precise dosing; the pros of an intravenous technique are postoperative quiet recovery and a low incidence of vomiting. With both techniques the aim is to reach a certain, most often constant effect site concentration, which after a short latent period equals the blood concentration. Initially, with both techniques a higher dosing is required to wash in the compound. An inhalational technique allows the end-tidal concentration to be measured and dosing to be adjusted. Dosing of intravenous anesthetics is based on assumptions. For neonates and young infants an inhalation technique is often preferred because of metabolic immaturity and the resulting difficulties of dosing, whereas older children can often profit from a quiet awakening and a reduced incidence of vomiting. The increased availability of syringe pumps with incorporated algorithms as well as of electroencephalograph (EEG)-based monitoring systems will further promote the popularity of total intravenous anesthesia.

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