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[Osteogenic tumors of bone].

Der Radiologe 2016 June
BACKGROUND: Osteogenic tumors include malignant and benign tumors that produce tumor osteoid and/or bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor, especially in children and young adults.

OBJECTIVES: The entities with their characteristic morphological features are described to enable the reader to come to a diagnosis and differential diagnosis on the basis of patient age, history and predominant location of the tumor.

METHODS: For this review we selectively used mainly large published patient cohorts. Our own and externally published data on widely accepted tumor criteria were also compared.

RESULTS: Detection is the initial diagnostic step for an osseous lesion, and is determined by the sensitivity of the method applied. Plain X‑ray films in two planes and CT are the basics in the radiological toolkit for osteogenic tumors. For evaluation of local tumor extension and biopsy planning MRI or scintigraphy should be combined. MRI as a stand-alone diagnostic tool is insufficient. For malignant bone tumors staging should be performed, applying a variable combination of thoracic CT, MRI, scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography (PET). Osteosarcoma, along with Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, are the most common malignant bone tumors; all sub-entities are significantly rarer. Among benign bone tumors, osteoid osteomas have the highest incidence, presenting with typical pain, location, and age predilection.

CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostics and treatment of malignant bone tumors should preferably be performed in specialized centers because of significant therapeutic implications for patients. In uncertain cases, a second opinion should always be obtained.

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