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Characteristics of Hospitalizations for Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are increasing. There are limited data examining national trends in patients hospitalized with HFpEF.

METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we examined 5,046,879 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of acute heart failure in 2003-2012, stratifying hospitalizations by HFpEF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Patient and hospital characteristics, in-hospital mortality, and length of stay were examined.

RESULTS: Compared with HFrEF, those with HFpEF were older, more commonly female, and more likely to have hypertension, atrial fibrillation, chronic lung disease, chronic renal failure, and anemia. Over time, HFpEF comprised increasing proportions of men and patients aged ≥75 years. In-hospital mortality rate for HFpEF decreased by 13%, largely due to improved survival in those aged ≥65 years. Multivariable regression analyses showed that pulmonary circulation disorders, liver disease, and chronic renal failure were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, whereas treatable diseases including hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes were inversely associated.

CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the largest cohort of patients hospitalized with HFpEF to date, yielding the following observations: number of hospitalizations for HFpEF was comparable with that of HFrEF; patients with HFpEF were most often women and elderly, with a high burden of comorbidities; outcomes appeared improved among a subset of patients; pulmonary hypertension, liver disease, and chronic renal failure were strongly associated with poor outcomes.

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