Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars Can Now Be Cured Completely: Recent Progress in Our Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars and the Most Promising Current Therapeutic Strategy

Rei Ogawa, Satoshi Akaishi, Shigehiko Kuribayashi, Tsuguhiro Miyashita
Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi 2016, 83 (2): 46-53
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders of the skin that are caused by abnormal healing of injured or irritated skin. It is possible that they are both manifestations of the same fibroproliferative skin disorder and just differ in terms of the intensity and duration of inflammation. These features may in turn be influenced by genetic, systemic, and local risk factors. Genetic factors may include single nucleotide polymorphisms, while systemic factors may include hypertension, pregnancy, hormones, and cytokines. The most important local factor is tension on the scar. Over the past 10 years, our understanding of the pathogenesis of keloids and hypertrophic scars has improved markedly. As a result, these previously intractable scars are now regarded as being treatable. There are many therapeutic options, including surgery, radiation, corticosteroids, 5-fluorouracil, cryotherapy, laser therapy, anti-allergy agents, anti-inflammatory agents, bleaching creams and make-up therapies. However, at present, we believe that the following combination of three therapies most reliably achieves a complete cure: surgery, followed by radiation and the use of steroid tape/plaster.

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