Rehabilitation Outcomes After Inpatient Rehabilitation for Lower Extremity Amputations in Patients With Diabetes

Kavita Venkataraman, Ngan Phoon Fong, Kin Ming Chan, Boon Yeow Tan, Edward Menon, Chye Hua Ee, Kok Keng Lee, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2016, 97 (9): 1473-1480

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with functional gain, discharge destination, and long-term survival after inpatient rehabilitation in patients with lower extremity amputation and diabetes.

DESIGN: Retrospective medical records review.

SETTING: All community hospitals.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with diabetes (N=256) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation after lower extremity amputation.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Absolute functional gain (AFG) using the Shah-modified Barthel Index, discharge destination, and long-term survival for each patient.

RESULTS: Length of stay (B=.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], .08-.21; P<.001) and admission functional status (B=-.09; 95% CI, -.18 to -.01; P=.032) were significantly associated with AFG. Availability of caregiver (foreign domestic worker: odds ratio [OR], 16.39; 95% CI, 4.65-57.78; P<.001; child: OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.31-11.12; P=.014; spouse: OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.07-7.46; P=.037 vs none), Charlson Comorbidity Index of 1 (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.34-13.93; P=.014 vs ≥4), and younger age (OR, .96; 95% CI, .93-.99; P=.02) were significantly associated with being discharged home. Admission functional status (hazard ratio [HR], .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P<.001), AFG (HR, .99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.00; P=.058), Charlson Comorbidity Index (1 vs ≥4: HR, .42; 95% CI, .24-.77; P=.004), ischemic heart disease (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.27-4.00; P=.006), discharge destination (other vs home: HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.23; P=.041), age (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P=.082), and ethnicity (Malay vs Chinese: HR, .37; 95% CI, .16-.87; P=.022) predicted survival postamputation.

CONCLUSIONS: Admission functional status predicted both functional gain during rehabilitation and survival in these patients. We also found ethnic differences in outcomes, with Malays having better survival after amputation. Lastly, there appears to be greater reliance on foreign domestic workers as caregivers, with patients with foreign domestic workers as their primary caregiver having the highest odds of being discharged home.

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