Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of avoralstat, an oral plasma kallikrein inhibitor: phase 1 study

M Cornpropst, P Collis, J Collier, Y S Babu, R Wilson, J Zhang, L Fang, J Zong, W P Sheridan
Allergy 2016, 71 (12): 1676-1683

BACKGROUND: Avoralstat is a potent small-molecule oral plasma kallikrein inhibitor under development for treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE). This first-in-human study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of avoralstat.

METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose cohort trial evaluated avoralstat single doses of 50, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg and multiple doses up to 2400 mg daily (100, 200, 400, and 800 mg every 8 h [q8 h] up to 7 days).

RESULTS: Avoralstat (n = 71) was generally well tolerated with no signals for a safety concern; there were no serious adverse events (AEs) or discontinuations due to AEs, and compared to placebo (n = 18), no notable difference in AEs. Four moderate severity AEs were reported in two subjects; syncope after a single 250 mg dose (one subject) and abdominal pain, back pain, and eczema after multiple doses of 800 mg avoralstat (one subject). For multiple-dose cohorts, the incidence of gastrointestinal AEs was highest at the 2400 mg/day dose. Elimination of avoralstat was bi-exponential with a terminal half-life of 12-31 h. Inhibition of plasma kallikrein was observed at all doses, and the degree of inhibition was highly correlated with avoralstat concentrations (R = 0.93). Mean avoralstat concentrations at doses ≥400 mg q8 h met or exceeded plasma kallikrein EC50 values throughout the dosing interval.

CONCLUSION: Avoralstat was well tolerated, and drug exposure was sufficient to meet target levels for inhibition of plasma kallikrein. Based on these results, the 400 mg q8 h dose was selected for further evaluation in patients with HAE.

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