JOURNAL ARTICLE

Right Ventricle before and after Atrial Septal Defect Device Closure

Vidya Sagar Akula, Rajasekhar Durgaprasad, Vanajakshamma Velam, Latheef Kasala, Madhavi Rodda, Harsha Vardhan Erathi
Echocardiography 2016, 33 (9): 1381-8
27109837

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) device closure is a safe and effective means of reducing or eliminating interatrial shunting. The response of the right heart to device closure is incompletely understood.

AIM: To evaluate the effects of transcatheter closure of secundum ASD on right ventricle size and function, that is, both systolic and diastolic by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) over a 6-month period.

METHODS: Seventy-three patients had 73 device implantations. The patients were assessed with echocardiography before and at 1 and 6 months after procedure.

RESULTS: Mean age was 26 ± 17 years. Mean ASD size indexed to body surface area (BSA) was 19.1 ± 8.6 mm/m(2) . The device size ranged from 12 to 42 mm. One month after closure, there were statistically significant decreases in right ventricular (RV) basal diameter (3.5 ± 0.7 cm vs. 4.2 ± 0.8 cm), RV/LV end-diastolic diameter ratio (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2), left ventricular eccentricity index (LVEI) (1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2), right atrial (RA) major dimension (4.4 ± 0.8 cm vs. 4.8 ± 1.0 cm), RA end-systolic area (13.2 ± 4.6 cm(2) vs. 18.5 ± 6.7 cm(2) ), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (2.2 ± 1.8 cm vs. 2.8 ± 0.5 cm), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (TASV or S') (13.1 ± 3.0 cm/sec vs. 16.0 ± 2.8 cm/sec), E/A (1.4 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5), and E/e' (5.9 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 2.0) in comparison with baseline. Six months after closure, there were statistically significant decreases in RV major dimension (5.9 ± 1.1 cm vs. 6.3 ± 1.0 cm), RV/LV end-diastolic diameter ratio (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1), RA major dimension (4.1 ± 0.8 cm vs. 4.4 ± 0.8 cm), and RA end-systolic area (11.4 ± 3.8 cm(2) vs. 13.2 ± 4.6 cm(2) ) in comparison with 1 month post-device closure. After 6 months, there was a statistically insignificant increase in both TASV (13.7 ± 2.8 cm/sec vs. 13.1 ± 3.0 cm/sec) and TAPSE (2.5 ± 1.6 cm/sec vs. 2.2 ± 1.8 cm/sec). There was no significant change in tissue Doppler MPI at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after closure (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.15 vs. 0.38 ± 0.13). There was significant decrease in E/e' from baseline to 1 month and 1 month to 6 months after closure (7.2 ± 2.0 vs. 5.9 ± 5.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.5).

CONCLUSION: RV volumes decreased significantly in the first month after ASD device closure and continued up to 6 months. There was no change in global right ventricular systolic function but a high basal RV systolic function decreased after closure. Some patients had impaired diastolic function before closure of defect, which reversed to normal within 6 months after closure. Diastolic dysfunction in older age-group may be a cause for long duration taken by right heart chambers to regress and deserves further investigation.

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