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Trends in Pharmacotherapy for Bladder Dysfunction Among Children in the United States, 2000 to 2013.

Clinical Pediatrics 2017 January
Bladder-related issues such as nocturnal enuresis and incontinence have long been a part of general pediatric practice. Increasingly, clinicians are prescribing medications directed at a variety of types of bladder dysfunction, but no prior population-based data exist. We used MarketScan health care claims data on 32 074 638 insured children to estimate utilization patterns by age, sex, year, and geographic region in the United States from 2000 to 2013, and to assess related diagnosis codes. Approximately 1 in 500 children filled an antimuscarinic prescription. The most common prescriptions were for oxybutynin (78%) and tolterodine (17%). Rates were highest at ages 6 to 10 years (65/100 000 person-months), 31% higher for girls versus boys, peaked in 2011 (44/100 000 person-months), and were highest in the Midwest (59/100 000 person-months). Seventy-three percent of children with prescriptions had diagnosis codes for genitourinary symptoms, and 13% had codes for congenital anomalies. Research is needed regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of these drugs in children.

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