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Recurrent status epilepticus in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as initial feature of pediatric lupus: A newly diagnosed case and literature review.

Brain & Development 2016 October
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently described clinico-neuroradiological syndrome with several predisposing conditions. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), beginning in 15-20% in childhood, is considered as a potential underlying etiology of PRES. In children, status epilepticus (SE) rarely complicates PRES, and exceptionally occurs in SLE.

METHODS: We report on an illustrative case of PRES complicating pediatric lupus revealed by recurrent SE, and we further review through a Pubmed search the previously reported cases of pediatric SLE, PRES and SE.

RESULTS: We describe the case of a 12-year old girl who presented with recurrent status epilepticus associated to high blood pressure and renal involvement. Brain imaging showed classical aspects of PRES. Immunological tests including antinuclear, anti-DNA, and anticardiolipin antibodies were positive. The diagnosis of SLE was established. The Pubmed search identified a total number of 9 children with SE in SLE, and 26 with PRES, including our patient.

CONCLUSIONS: We discussed the clinical and paraclinical features of PRES in SLE with epilepsy, their underlying pathophysiological aspects, and their management challenges. PRES should be considered in initial recurrent SE in children, justifying a battery of tests comprising immunological testing. Anticardiolipin antibodies seem to play a crucial role in epilepsy, PRES and renal involvement in pediatric SLE. Further studies are needed to clarify whether PRES should be considered one of the neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE or a consequence of active disease in other organ systems or its treatment.

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