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History of surgical intervention of anterior shoulder instability.

BACKGROUND: Anterior glenohumeral instability most commonly affects younger patients and has shown high recurrence rates with nonoperative management. The treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability has undergone significant evolution over the 20th and 21 centuries.

METHODS: This article presents a retrospective comprehensive review of the history of different operative techniques for shoulder stabilization.

RESULTS: Bankart first described an anatomic suture repair of the inferior glenohumeral ligament and anteroinferior labrum in 1923. Multiple surgeons have since described anatomic and nonanatomic repairs, and many of the early principles of shoulder stabilization have remained even as the techniques have changed. Some methods, such as the Magnusson-Stack procedure, Putti-Platt procedure, arthroscopic stapling, and transosseous suture fixation, have been almost completely abandoned. Other strategies, such as the Bankart repair, capsular shift, and remplissage, have persisted for decades and have been adapted for arthroscopic use.

DISCUSSION: The future of anterior shoulder stabilization will continue to evolve with even newer practices, such as the arthroscopic Latarjet transfer. Further research and clinical experience will dictate which future innovations are ultimately embraced.

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