The prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy is increasing. Pre-existing diabetes is present in 1 in 167 pregnancies in Australia, divided equally between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in women during their childbearing years, and pregnancy increases the short-term risk of diabetic retinopathy progression. We examine the risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy including duration of diabetes, baseline level of retinopathy, level of glycaemic control and hypertension. We also examine current screening and management guidelines and their levels of evidence, current treatment options for diabetic retinopathy and avenues for further research.
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