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Cellular and humoral influenza-specific immune response upon vaccination in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and unclassified antibody deficiency.

Vaccine 2016 May 6
BACKGROUND: Immunization against seasonal influenza with inactivated vaccine is recommended for patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). However, humoral vaccine response in CVID patients is frequently impaired and current knowledge on T cell vaccine response in CVID and other patients with antibody deficiency is poor.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we comparatively analyzed the antibody and T cellular immune response of patients with CVID and unclassified antibody deficiency to influenza vaccination in the season 2013-2014.

METHODS: Eight patients with CVID, 8 patients with unclassified antibody deficiency and 9 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose of non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine. Before and 3 weeks after the vaccination antibody titers against the strains A/California/7/2009, A/Texas/50/2012, and B/Massachusetts/02/2012 included in the vaccine were measured by hemagglutination inhibition testing. Additionally, vaccine-specific T cell cytokine response was determined by stimulation with the complete vaccine in vitro.

RESULTS: Whereas all healthy controls responded to vaccination with serum antibody titers, only 1/8 CVID patients and 4/8 patients with unclassified antibody deficiency showed a response against at least 1 of the 3 vaccine strains. However, 7/8 of the CVID and 6/8 of the patients with unclassified antibody deficiency had similar frequencies of vaccine-induced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 producing CD40L(+) T cells as the control group.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that most CVID and unclassified antibody deficiency patients benefit from seasonal influenza vaccination by mounting a cellular response.

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