Validation of γ-radiation and ultraviolet as a new inactivators for foot and mouth disease virus in comparison with the traditional methods

Safy El Din Mahdy, Amr Ismail Hassanin, Wael Mossad Gamal El-Din, Ehab El-Sayed Ibrahim, Hiam Mohamed Fakhry
Veterinary World 2015, 8 (9): 1088-98

AIM: The present work deals with different methods for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) inactivation for serotypes O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012 by heat, gamma radiation, and ultraviolet (UV) in comparison with the traditional methods and their effects on the antigenicity of viruses for production of inactivated vaccines.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: FMDV types O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012 were propagated in baby hamster kidney 21 (BHK21) and titrated then divided into five parts; the first part inactivated with heat, the second part inactivated with gamma radiation, the third part inactivated with UV light, the fourth part inactivated with binary ethylamine, and the last part inactivated with combination of binary ethylamine and formaldehyde (BEI+FA). Evaluate the method of inactivation via inoculation in BHK21, inoculation in suckling baby mice and complement fixation test then formulate vaccine using different methods of inactivation then applying the quality control tests to evaluate each formulated vaccine.

RESULTS: The effect of heat, gamma radiation, and UV on the ability of replication of FMDV "O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012" was determined through BHK cell line passage. Each of the 9 virus aliquots titer 10(8) TCID50 (3 for each strain) were exposed to 37, 57, and 77°C for 15, 30, and 45 min. Similarly, another 15 aliquots (5 for each strain) contain 1 mm depth of the exposed samples in petri-dish was exposed to UV light (252.7 nm wavelength: One foot distance) for 15, 30, 45, 60, and 65 min. Different doses of gamma radiation (10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 KGy) were applied in a dose rate 0.551 Gy/s for each strain and repeated 6 times for each dose. FMDV (O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012) were inactivated when exposed to heat ≥57°C for 15 min. The UV inactivation of FMDV (O/pan Asia and SAT-2) was obtained within 60 min and 65 min for type A/Iran05. The ideal dose for inactivation of FMDV (O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012) with gamma radiation were 55-60 and 45 kGy, respectively. Inactivation of FMDV with binary was 20, 24 and 16 hr for O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012, respectively while inactivation by (BEI+FA) was determined after 18, 19 and 11 hr for O/pan-Asia, A/Iran 05, and SAT-2/2012, respectively. The antigenicity of control virus before inactivation was 1/32, it was not changed after inactivation in case of gamma radiation and (BEI+FA) and slightly decrease to 1/16 in case of binary and declined to 1/2, 1/4 in case of heat and UV inactivation, respectively. The immune response induced by inactivated FMD vaccines by gamma radiation and (BEI+FA) lasted to 9 months post-vaccination, while the binary only still up to 8 months post-vaccination but heat and UV-inactivated vaccines were not effective.

CONCLUSION: Gamma radiation could be considered a good new inactivator inducing the same results of inactivated vaccine by binary with formaldehyde (BEI+FA).

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