JOURNAL ARTICLE

Clinical efficacy of postoperative adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on hepatocellular carcinoma

Chen Liu, Li Sun, Jingchao Xu, Yongfu Zhao
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2016 April 2, 14: 100
27038790

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of postoperative adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

METHODS: Data from 117 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy between December 2010 and February 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 55 patients underwent surgical resection only (group A), and 62 patients underwent surgical resection with adjuvant TACE (group B). The perioperative clinical indicators, postoperative sequential treatment, and follow-up were compared between the two groups of patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival between the groups, and prognostic factors were evaluated by a Cox proportional hazard model.

RESULTS: The two groups showed no significant difference in age, gender, preoperative A-fetoprotein (AFP) values, preoperative Child-Pugh score, hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA levels, duration of surgery, hepatectomy technique, albumin values 1-week postoperative, postoperative complications, duration of postoperative hospital stay, cirrhosis, tumor size, tumor differentiation, tumor encapsulation, satellite nodules, or microvascular infiltration. Cox regression analysis revealed that tumor size, satellite nodules, and microvascular infiltration were significantly independent prognostic factors (P = 0.001, 0.002, and 0.001). Of the 117 patients, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year disease-free survival rates were 64.5, 50.0, and 41.9%, respectively, for group B (62 patients) and 45.5, 36.4, and 30.9%, respectively, for group A (55 patients). Although improving trends of disease-free survival were observed in the adjuvant TACE group, there was a significant difference in postoperative 1-year survival between the two groups (P = 0.04) but no significant difference in postoperative 2- and 3-year survival. In patients with tumor size >5 cm, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year disease-free survival rates were 41.7, 25.0, and 12.5%, respectively, for group B and 11.8, 0, and 0%, respectively, for group A. There was a significant difference in postoperative 1- and 2-year survival between the two groups (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) but no significant difference in postoperative 3-year survival. In patients with microvascular infiltration, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year disease-free survival rates were 42.3, 26.9, and 15.4%, respectively, for group B and 12.5, 4.2, and 0%, respectively, for group A. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.02, 0.03, and 0.045, respectively). In patients with satellite nodules, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year disease-free survival rates were 50.0, 50, and 40%, respectively, for group B and 17.6, 0, and 0%, respectively, for group A. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.04, 0.01, and 0.03, respectively). In patients with tumor size ≤5 cm, without satellite nodules, or without microvascular infiltration, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the 1-, 2-, or 3-year disease-free survival rates. Of 117 patients overall, 18 (15.4%) developed hepatitis B virus reactivation: 2 (3.6%) patients in group A and 16 (25.8%) patients in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.000). Of these patients, one (1.8 %) patient in group A and five (8.1 %) patients in group B developed hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus reactivation. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.000).

CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative adjuvant TACE can improve the 1-year disease-free survival rate of HCC patients. Postoperative adjuvant TACE may improve 2- and 3-year disease-free survival rates, but no statistical significance was found. For patients with tumor size >5 cm, postoperative adjuvant TACE can improve 1- and 2-year disease-free survival rates, and postoperative adjuvant TACE may improve the 3-year disease-free survival rate. For HCC patients with tumor size ≤5 cm, postoperative adjuvant TACE may improve the 1-, 2-, and 3-year disease-free survival rates, but no statistical significance was found. For patients with microvascular infiltration or satellite nodules, postoperative adjuvant TACE can improve the 1-, 2-, and 3-year disease-free survival rates. For patients without microvascular infiltration or without satellite nodules, postoperative adjuvant TACE cannot improve 1-, 2-, or 3-year disease-free survival rates. For patients with tumor size >5 cm with microvascular infiltration or with satellite nodules, postoperative adjuvant TACE was suggested. Hepatitis B virus reactivation can occur in patients with postoperative adjuvant TACE; thus, antiviral treatment was suggested for these patients.

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