The PREVAIL Study: Primary Outcomes by Site and Extent of Baseline Disease for Enzalutamide-treated Men with Chemotherapy-naïve Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer

Christopher P Evans, Celestia S Higano, Thomas Keane, Gerald Andriole, Fred Saad, Peter Iversen, Kurt Miller, Choung-Soo Kim, Go Kimura, Andrew J Armstrong, Cora N Sternberg, Yohann Loriot, Johann de Bono, Sarah B Noonberg, Hank Mansbach, Suman Bhattacharya, Frank Perabo, Tomasz M Beer, Bertrand Tombal
European Urology 2016, 70 (4): 675-683

BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide, an oral androgen receptor inhibitor, significantly improved overall survival (OS) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) versus placebo in the PREVAIL trial of men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of enzalutamide versus placebo in patients from PREVAIL based on site and extent of baseline disease.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: One thousand seven hundred and seventeen asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients were randomized to enzalutamide (n=872) or placebo (n=845). Subgroup analyses included nonvisceral (only bone and/or nodal; n=1513), visceral (lung and/or liver; n=204), low-volume bone disease (<4 bone metastases; n=867), high-volume bone disease (≥4 bone metastases; n=850), lymph node only disease (n=195).

INTERVENTION: Oral enzalutamide (160mg) or placebo once daily while continuing androgen deprivation therapy.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Coprimary endpoints (rPFS, OS) were prospectively evaluated in nonvisceral and visceral subgroups. All other efficacy analyses were post hoc.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Enzalutamide improved rPFS versus placebo in patients with nonvisceral disease (hazard ratio [HR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.22), visceral disease (HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.49), low- or high-volume bone disease (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.11-0.22; HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.16-0.29, respectively), and lymph node only disease (HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.04-0.19). For OS, HRs favored enzalutamide (<1) across all disease subgroups, although 95% CI was >1 in patients with visceral disease (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.55-1.23). Enzalutamide was well tolerated in patients with or without visceral disease.

CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide provided clinically significant benefits in men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, with or without visceral disease, low- or high-volume bone disease, or lymph node only disease.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer-including those with or without visceral disease or widespread bone disease-benefitted from enzalutamide, an active well-tolerated therapy.

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