Genetic composition of interspecific potato somatic hybrids and autofused 4x plants evaluated by DArT and cytoplasmic DNA markers

Paulina Smyda-Dajmund, Jadwiga Śliwka, Iwona Wasilewicz-Flis, Henryka Jakuczun, Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska
Plant Cell Reports 2016, 35 (6): 1345-58
Using DArT analysis, we demonstrated that all Solanum × michoacanum (+) S. tuberosum somatic hybrids contained all parental chromosomes. However, from 13.9 to 29.6 % of the markers from both parents were lost in the hybrids. Somatic hybrids are an interesting material for research of nucleus-cytoplasm interaction and sources of new nuclear and cytoplasmic combinations. Analyses of genomes of somatic hybrids are essential for studies on genome compatibility between species, its evolution and are important for their efficient exploitation. Diversity array technology (DArT) permits analysis of the composition of nuclear DNA of somatic hybrids. The nuclear genome compositions of 97 Solanum × michoacanum (+) S. tuberosum [mch (+) tbr] somatic hybrids from five fusion combinations and 11 autofused 4x mch were analyzed for the first time based on DArT markers. Out of 5358 DArT markers generated in a single assay, greater than 2000 markers were polymorphic between parents, of which more than 1500 have a known chromosomal location on potato genetic or physical map. DArT markers were distributed along the entire length of 12 chromosomes. We noticed elimination of markers of wild and tbr fusion components. The nuclear genome of individual somatic hybrids was diversified. Mch is a source of resistance to Phytophthora infestans. From 97 mch (+) tbr somatic hybrids, two hybrids and all 11 autofused 4x mch were resistant to P. infestans. The analysis of the structure of particular hybrids' chromosomes indicated the presence of markers from both parental genomes as well as missing markers spread along the full length of the chromosome. Markers specific to chloroplast DNA and mitochondrial DNA were used for analysis of changes within the organellar genomes of somatic hybrids. Random and non-random segregations of organellar DNA were noted.

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