Prenatal Diagnosis and Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors for Intervention and Adverse Outcome in Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation

Astrid Hellmund, Christoph Berg, Annegret Geipel, Meike Bludau, Andreas Heydweiller, Haitham Bachour, Andreas Müller, Annette Müller, Ulrich Gembruch
PloS One 2016, 11 (3): e0150474

OBJECTIVE: To describe antenatal findings and evaluate prenatal risk parameters for adverse outcome or need for intervention in fetuses with congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM).

METHODS: In our retrospective study all fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of CPAM detected in our tertiary referral center between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed. Sonographic findings were noted and measurements of mass-to-thorax-ratio (MTR), congenital pulmonary airway malformation volume-ratio (CVR) and observed to expected lung-to head-ratio (o/e LHR) were conducted and correlated to fetal or neonatal morbidity and mortality and/or need for prenatal intervention.

RESULTS: 67 fetuses with CPAM were included in the study. Hydropic fetuses were observed in 16.4% (11/67) of cases, prenatal intervention was undertaken in 9 cases; 7 pregnancies were terminated. The survival rate of non-hydropic fetuses with conservatively managed CPAM was 98.0% (50/51), the survival rate for hydropic fetuses with intention to treat was 42.9% (3/7). 10 (18.2%) children needed respiratory assistance. Fetuses with a CVR of <0.91 were significantly less likely to experience adverse outcome or need for prenatal intervention with sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive value of 0.89, 0.71, 0.62 and 0.93, respectively. A MTR (mass-to-thorax-ratio) of < 0.51 had a positive predictive value of 0.54 and a negative predictive value of 0.96 of adverse events with a sensitivity of 0.95 and a specificity of 0.63. The negative predictive value for o/e LHR of 45% was 0.84 with sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 0.73, 0.68 and 0.52, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of cases with CPAM have a favorable outcome. MTR and CVR are able to identify fetuses at risk, the o/e LHR is less sensitive.

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