Chronic ethanol feeding promotes azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing mucosal inflammation

Pradeep K Shukla, Kamaljit K Chaudhry, Hina Mir, Ruchika Gangwar, Nikki Yadav, Bhargavi Manda, Avtar S Meena, RadhaKrishna Rao
BMC Cancer 2016 March 7, 16: 189

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is one of the major risk factors for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism involved in this effect of alcohol is unknown.

METHODS: We evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced carcinogenesis in mouse colon. Inflammation in colonic mucosa was assessed at a precancerous stage by evaluating mucosal infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, and analysis of cytokine and chemokine gene expression.

RESULTS: Chronic ethanol feeding significantly increased the number and size of polyps in colon of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopic and immunoblot analyses showed a significant elevation of phospho-Smad, VEGF and HIF1α in the colonic mucosa. RT-PCR analysis at a precancerous stage indicated that ethanol significantly increases the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα, and the chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10 in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopy showed that ethanol feeding induces a dramatic elevation of myeloperoxidase, Gr1 and CD68-positive cells in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS-treated mice. Ethanol feeding enhanced AOM/DSS-induced suppression of tight junction protein expression and elevated cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 in the colonic epithelium.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that chronic ethanol feeding promotes colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing inflammation and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

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