Sex Differences in Reported Concussion Injury Rates and Time Loss From Participation: An Update of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program From 2004-2005 Through 2008-2009

Tracey Covassin, Ryan Moran, R J Elbin
Journal of Athletic Training 2016, 51 (3): 189-94

CONTEXT: Epidemiologic studies have identified differences in concussion incidence between the sexes. However, few authors to date have updated injury rates (IRs) and time loss between male and female concussed athletes.

OBJECTIVE: To examine sex differences in IRs and time loss in concussed National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes.

DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiologic study.

SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association athletics.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1702 concusssed NCAA athletes, consisting of 903 females and 779 males participating in soccer, basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, softball, or baseball over a 5-year period from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Using the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program, athletic trainers reported concussions, athlete-exposures (AEs), and time loss across 10 NCAA sports. An IR is the number of injuries in a particular category divided by the number of AEs in that category.

RESULTS: During the study period, 1702 concussions were reported during 4 170 427 AEs for an overall total of 5.47 per 10 000 AEs. In sex-comparable sports, females had a 1.4 times higher overall concussion IR than males (IRs = 4.84 and 3.46, respectively), with greater rates in women's baseball/softball, basketball, ice hockey, and soccer than men. Female soccer and basketball players also displayed more time loss after concussion compared with male basketball and soccer players.

CONCLUSIONS: Female athletes sustained a higher rate of concussion and, in all sports except lacrosse, had greater time loss from concussion than male athletes. Additional research is needed on sex differences in time loss after concussions.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"