Insulin and vanadium protect against osteoarthritis development secondary to diabetes mellitus in rats

Abbas O El Karib, Bahjat Al-Ani, Fahaid Al-Hashem, Mohammad Dallak, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Basiouny El-Gamal, Salah O Bashir, Refaat A Eid, Mohamed A Haidara
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 2016, 122 (3): 148-54

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic complications such as cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis (OA) are among the common public health problems. The effect of insulin on OA secondary to diabetes has not been investigated before in animal models. Therefore, we sought to determine whether insulin and the insulin-mimicking agent, vanadium can protect from developing OA in diabetic rats.

METHODS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with insulin and/or vanadium. Tissues harvested from the articular cartilage of the knee joint were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and blood samples were assayed for oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers.

RESULTS: Eight weeks following the induction of diabetes, a profound damage to the knee joint compared to the control non-diabetic group was observed. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin and/or vanadium differentially protected from diabetes-induced cartilage damage and deteriorated fibrils of collagen fibers. The relative biological potencies were insulin + vanadium > insulin > vanadium. Furthermore, there was about 2- to 5-fold increase in TNF-α (from 31.02 ± 1.92 to 60.5 ± 1.18 pg/ml, p < 0.0001) and IL-6 (from 64.67 ± 8.16 to 338.0 ± 38.9 pg/ml, p < 0.0001) cytokines and free radicals measured as TBARS (from 3.21 ± 0.37 to 11.48 ± 1.5 µM, p < 0.0001) in the diabetic group, which was significantly reduced with insulin and or vanadium. Meanwhile, SOD decreased (from 17.79 ± 8.9 to 8.250.29, p < 0.0001) and was increased with insulin and vanadium. The relative potencies of the treating agents on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were insulin + vanadium > insulin > vanadium.

CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that co-administration of insulin and vanadium to T1DM rats protect against diabetes-induced OA possibly by lowering biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.


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