Renoprotective effect of diosgenin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Divya M Kanchan, Gauresh S Somani, Vaibhavi V Peshattiwar, Aakruti A Kaikini, Sadhana Sathaye
Pharmacological Reports: PR 2016, 68 (2): 370-7

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder associated with genesis of diabetes related vascular diseases. Oxidative stress along with inflammation is the major causative factor leading to diabetic complications. The present study examined the protective effect of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, in diabetes induced early kidney injury.

METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45mg/kg) in rats followed by treatment for 28 days with diosgenin (5, 10 and 20mg/kg, oral). Blood glucose levels, lipid profile, serum advanced glycation end-products, biomarkers of kidney damage like urinary protein excretion, kidney hypertrophy index and creatinine in serum and urine were determined. Biochemical analysis of oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and myeloperoxidase level were evaluated in kidney homogenates. Histopathological evaluation of kidney was also studied.

RESULTS: Treatment with diosgenin significantly ameliorated the altered oxidative stress levels in STZ induced diabetic rats resulting in decreased LPO and increased endogenous antioxidant levels in a dose-dependent manner. Blood glucose was significantly decreased at 20mg/kg. The distorted levels of biomarkers suggestive of kidney damage were significantly normalized by diosgenin providing protection to kidneys also confirmed by histopathological studies. Decreased myeloperoxidase levels in diosgenin treatment groups revealed its anti-inflammatory activity.

CONCLUSION: The above study justifies diosgenin as a promising candidate in diabetes associated complication through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

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