Negative prognostic factors for psychological conditions in patients with audiovestibular diseases

Masaharu Sakagami, Tadashi Kitahara, Tadao Okayasu, Akinori Yamashita, Akihito Hasukawa, Ichiro Ota, Toshiaki Yamanaka
Auris, Nasus, Larynx 2016, 43 (6): 632-6

OBJECTIVE: To examine the backgrounds of patients with audiovestibular disease regarding what influences their psychological state.

METHODS: During a 12-year period, 375 successive patients with audiovestibular diseases were enrolled in this study. Diseases included unilateral (n=174) and bilateral (n=51) Menière's disease, sudden deafness with vertigo (n=70), and vestibular neuritis (n=80). Diagnosis, sex, age, duration of disease, vertigo frequency, persistent nystagmus, and ipsilateral/contralateral hearing levels were recorded. Cornell Medical Index (domains III-IV=neurosis) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (score>40=depression) were applied during acute vertigo remissions in all patients.

RESULTS: Neurosis and depression, respectively, were diagnosed in 62.7% and 82.4% of bilateral Menière's, 32.7% and 48.9% of unilateral Menière's, 15.7% and 38.6% of sudden deafness/vertigo, and 12.7% and 31.3% of vestibular neuritis patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that Menière's disease with longer disease duration (Oz 1.212; P=0.021) and worse hearing in the secondary affected ear (Oz 1.131; P=0.042); sudden deafness/vertigo with persistent nystagmus (Oz 1.895; P=0.005); and vestibular neuritis with longer disease duration (Oz 1.422; P=0.019) and persistent nystagmus (Oz 1.950; P=0.0003) had mental illness significantly more often than those with shorter-duration disease, better hearing and no persistent nystagmus.

CONCLUSION: Mental disorder increased in accordance with solo vertigo, vertigo/hearing loss, repeated symptoms, and bilateral lesions. Treatment strategies should be carefully constructed for patients with persistent nystagmus, long disease duration, and hearing loss in the secondary affected ear to avoid psychological disorders.

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