Recent Advances in Understanding and Managing Tourette Syndrome

Mary Ann Thenganatt, Joseph Jankovic
F1000Research 2016, 5
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurologic and behavioral disorder consisting of motor and phonic tics with onset in childhood or adolescence. The severity of tics can range from barely perceptible to severely impairing due to social embarrassment, discomfort, self-injury, and interference with daily functioning and school or work performance. In addition to tics, most patients with TS have a variety of behavioral comorbidities, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Studies evaluating the pathophysiology of tics have pointed towards dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit, but the mechanism of this hyperkinetic movement disorder is not well understood. Treatment of TS is multidisciplinary, typically involving behavioral therapy, oral medications, and botulinum toxin injections. Deep brain stimulation may be considered for "malignant" TS that is refractory to conventional therapy. In this review, we will highlight recent developments in the understanding and management strategies of TS.

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