The incidence of rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NET) has increased in recent years. Most of these neoplasms are asymptomatic and are diagnosed by colonoscopy screening, which could be one of the reasons for the increasing occurrence. As less than 1 % of rectal NET produce serotonin they are practically never discovered due to a carcinoid syndrome. The current guidelines of the European (ENETS) and North American (NANETS) Neuroendocrine Tumor Societies support clinicians with useful diagnostic and treatment algorithms. The most important criteria for therapy are tumor size and histopathological risk factors for metastases. For well-differentiated rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms < 1 cm, local endoscopic or surgical excision is recommended. Due to the lack of evidence tumors sized 1-2 cm represent a grey area for prognosis and treatment. All NET > 1.5 cm must be excised by radical surgery as low anterior rectal resection or abdominoperineal extirpation with total mesorectal excision (TME). Resectable liver and lung metastases of well-differentiated NETs should be surgically treated with curative intent.
Full text links
We have located links that may give you full text access.