Metabolism and bioavailability of newly developed dietary fiber materials, resistant glucan and hydrogenated resistant glucan, in rats and humans

Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Shigeki Morita, Norihisa Hamaguchi, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
Nutrition & Metabolism 2016, 13: 13

BACKGROUND: Resistant glucan (RG) and hydrogenated resistant glucan (HRG) are new dietary fiber materials developed to decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome and lifestyle-related diseases. We investigated the metabolism and bioavailability of RG and HRG using rats and humans.

METHODS: Purified RG and HRG were used as test substances. After 25 Wistar male rats (270 g) were fed with an experimental diet (AIN93M diet with the cellulose replaced by β-corn starch) ad libitum for 1 week, they were used for the experiment involving blood collection and circulating air collection. Ten participants (5 males, 22.5 y, BMI 20.4 kg/m(2); 5 females, 25.8 y, BMI 20.9 kg/m(2)) voluntarily participated in this study. The study was carried out using a within-subject, repeated measures design. Effects of RG and HRG on the response for blood glucose and insulin and hydrogen excretion were compared with those of glucose and a typical nondigestible and fermentable fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in rats and humans. Available energy was evaluated using the fermentability based on breath hydrogen excretion.

RESULTS: When purified RG or HRG (400 mg) was administered orally to rats, blood glucose and insulin increased slightly, but less than when glucose was administration (P < 0.05). Hydrogen started to be excreted 120 min after administration of RG with negligibly small peak at 180 min, thereafter excreted scarcely until 1440 min. Hydrogen excretion after HRG administration showed a larger peak than RG at 180 min, but was markedly less than FOS. RG and HRG were excreted in feces, but not urine. When purified RG or HRG (30 g) were ingested by healthy humans, blood glucose and insulin levels increased scarcely. Breath hydrogen excretion increased slightly, but remarkably less than FOS. Ingestion of purified RG or HRG (5 g) to evaluate available energy, increased scarcely glucose and insulin levels and breath hydrogen excretion. Available energy was evaluated as 0 kcal/g for purified RG and 1 kcal/g for HRG.

CONCLUSION: The bioavailability was very low in both humans and rats, because oligosaccharide of minor component in purified RG and HRG was metabolized via intestinal microbes but major components with higher molecular weight were metabolized scarcely. Moreover, the ingestion of 30 g of RG or HRG did not induce apparent acute side effects in healthy adults. RG and HRG might potentially be used as new dietary fiber materials with low energy.

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