MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search
OPEN IN READ APP
JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hemoptysis

Rosa Cordovilla, Elena Bollo de Miguel, Ana Nuñez Ares, Francisco Javier Cosano Povedano, Inmaculada Herráez Ortega, Rafael Jiménez Merchán
Archivos de Bronconeumología 2016, 52 (7): 368-77
26873518
Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood from the tracheobronchial tree. It is commonly caused by bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, and lung cancer. The expectorated blood usually originates from the bronchial arteries. When hemoptysis is suspected, it must be confirmed and classified according to severity, and the origin and cause of the bleeding determined. Lateral and AP chest X-ray is the first study, although a normal chest X-ray does not rule out the possibility of malignancy or other underlying pathology. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) must be performed in all patients with frank hemoptysis, hemoptoic sputum, suspicion of bronchiectasis or risk factors for lung cancer, and in those with signs of pathology on chest X-ray. MDCT angiography has replaced arteriography in identifying the arteries that are the source of bleeding. MDCT angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique that can pinpoint the presence, origin, number and course of the systemic thoracic (bronchial and non-bronchial) and pulmonary arterial sources of bleeding. Endovascular embolization is the safest and most effective method of managing bleeding in massive or recurrent hemoptysis. Embolization is indicated in all patients with life-threatening or recurrent hemoptysis in whom MDCT angiography shows artery disease. Flexible bronchoscopy plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of hemoptysis in patients with hemoptoic sputum or frank hemoptysis. The procedure can be performed rapidly at the bedside (intensive care unit); it can be used for immediate control of bleeding, and is also effective in locating the source of the hemorrhage. Flexible bronchoscopy is the first-line procedure of choice in hemodynamically unstable patients with life-threatening hemoptysis, in whom control of bleeding is of vital importance. In these cases, surgery is associated with an extremely high mortality rate, and is currently only indicated when bleeding is secondary to surgery and its source can be accurately and reliably located.

Comments

You need to log in or sign up for an account to be able to comment.

No comments yet, be the first to post one!

Trending on Read

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
26873518
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"