Classification, prevention and management of entero-atmospheric fistula: a state-of-the-art review

Salomone Di Saverio, Antonio Tarasconi, Dominik A Walczak, Roberto Cirocchi, Matteo Mandrioli, Arianna Birindelli, Gregorio Tugnoli
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery 2016, 401 (1): 1-13

BACKGROUND: Entero-atmospheric fistula (EAF) is an enteric fistula occurring in the setting of an open abdomen, thus creating a communication between the GI tract and the external atmosphere. Management and nursing of patients suffering EAF carries several challenges, and prevention of EAF should be the first and best treatment option.

PURPOSE: Here, we present a novel modified classification of EAF and review the current state of the art in its prevention and management including nutritional issues and feeding strategies. We also provide an overview on surgical management principles, highlighting several surgical techniques for dealing with EAF that have been reported in the literature throughout the years.

CONCLUSIONS: The treatment strategy for EAF should be multidisciplinary and multifaceted. Surgical treatment is most often multistep and should be tailored to the single patient, based on the type and characteristics of the EAF, following its correct identification and classification. The specific experience of surgeons and nursing staff in the management of EAF could be enhanced, applying distinct simulation-based ex vivo training models.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"