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Keloids: The paradigm of skin fibrosis - Pathomechanisms and treatment.

Keloids, fibroproliferative dermal tumors with effusive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, particularly collagen, result from excessive expression of growth factors and cytokines. The etiology of keloids is unknown but they occur after dermal injury in genetically susceptible individuals, and they cause both physical and psychological distress for the affected individuals. Several treatment methods for keloids exist, including the combination therapy of surgical excision followed by intralesional steroid therapy, however, they have high recurrence rate regardless of the current treatment method. Improved understanding of the pathomechanisms leading to keloid formation will hopefully identify pathways that serve as specific targets to improve therapy for this devastating, currently intractable, disorder.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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