Updates on the risk factors for latent tuberculosis reactivation and their managements

Jing-Wen Ai, Qiao-Ling Ruan, Qi-Hui Liu, Wen-Hong Zhang
Emerging Microbes & Infections 2016 February 3, 5: e10
The preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is of great importance for the elimination and control of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, but existing screening methods for LTBI are still limited in predicting the onset of TB. Previous studies have found that some high-risk factors (including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), organ transplantation, silicosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, close contacts and kidney dialysis) contribute to a significantly increased TB reactivation rate. This article reviews each risk factor's association with TB and approaches to address those factors. Five regimens are currently recommended by the World Health Organization, and no regimen has shown superiority over others. In recent years, studies have gradually narrowed down to the preventive treatment of LTBI for high-risk target groups, such as silicosis patients, organ-transplantation recipients and HIV-infected patients. This review discusses regimens for each target group and compares the efficacy of different regimens. For HIV patients and transplant recipients, isoniazid monotherapy is effective in treating LTBI, but for others, little evidence is available at present.

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