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Novelties in Diabetic Retinopathy.

Although diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a leading cause of vision loss, the last decade has brought significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of this common complication of diabetes mellitus. First, optical coherence tomography allows for noninvasive imaging of the retina, in particular, the macula, with very high resolution, thus facilitating the management of diabetic macular edema. In addition, recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of DR, in particular, the key role of cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have led to the development of anti-VEGF antibodies for intraocular use. Anti-VEGF therapies have largely replaced laser photocoagulation for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. The benefit of intravitreal anti-VEGF in diabetic macular edema has been proven in numerous large randomized controlled trials. Moreover, a role of inflammation in DR has been recognized, and several mainly steroid-based, anti-inflammatory agents for intravitreal treatment have been shown to be effective. Despite these recent advances, strict systemic control of glycemia remains the cornerstone of the management of DR, significantly reducing ocular complications. This chapter will provide an overview of current and novel concepts of DR and will allude to promising novel therapeutic options for this sight-threatening disease.

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