Relation of Age, Sex and Bone Mineral Density to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Chinese Women and Men

Qiu-shi Wei, Zhen-qiu Chen, Xin Tan, Hai-rong Su, Xiao-xiang Chen, Wei He, Wei-min Deng
Orthopaedic Surgery 2015, 7 (4): 343-9

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels to age, sex, and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults living in Guangzhou Province.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 188 women and 122 men aged 17-88 years who were randomly sampled among community-dwelling Guangzhou residents. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), procollagen I N-terminal peptide, and beta C-telopeptide of collagen were assayed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were divided into four subgroups: severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL), deficiency (10-20 ng/mL), insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL), and sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL).

RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 47.39 ± 19.32 years. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in women than men (25.35 ± 6.59 ng/mL vs 27.25 ± 7.94 ng/mL, P < 0.05). The prevalence of 25(OH)D severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 1.6% in men, zero in women; 25(OH)D deficiency (10-20 ng/mL) was 22.9% in women and 20.5% in men; and 25(OH)D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) was 73.4% in women and 65.6% in men. An inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and age (r = -0.249, P < 0.01) was observed in men, but no correlation was found in women (r = 0.130, P > 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.382, P < 0.01; r = 0.384, P < 0.01, respectively) in elderly women and (r = 0.332, P < 0.05; r = 0.260, P < 0.05, respectively) and in young men. When adjustments were made for age, correlations between serum 25(OH)D levels and lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD persisted (r = 0.325, P < 0.05; r = 0.323, P < 0.05, respectively) in elderly women. However, age-adjusted serum 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine (r = 0.278, P < 0.05) but not at femoral neck (r = 0.165, P > 0.05) in young men. No association between unadjusted or age-adjusted serum 25(OH)D levels and lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD was found in young and middle-aged women and in middle-aged and elderly men. Neither serum PTH levels nor bone turnover markers were related to unadjusted and age-adjusted serum 25(OH)D levels in our participants.

CONCLUSION: More than two-third of participants residing in Guangzhou had vitamin D insufficiency. Serum 25(OH)D level is an important biomarker for BMD in elderly women and young men.

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