3-Amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives: small molecules possessing antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

M C Das, S Paul, P Gupta, P Tribedi, S Sarkar, D Manna, S Bhattacharjee
Journal of Applied Microbiology 2016, 120 (4): 842-59

AIM: The therapeutic treatment of microbial infections involving biofilm becomes quite challenging because of its increasing antibiotic resistance capacities. Towards this direction, in the present study we have evaluated the antibiofilm property of synthesized 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan compounds having polyamine skeleton. These derivatives were synthesized by incorporating furazan and biguanide moieties.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Different 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives (PI1-4) were synthesized via protic acid catalysis and subsequently characterized by (1) H NMR and (13) C NMR spectra, recorded at 400 and 100 MHz respectively. We have tested the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of these synthetic derivatives (PI1-4) against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compounds so tested were also compared with standard antibiotics namely Tobramycin (Ps. aeruginosa) and Azithromycin (Staph. aureus) which were used as a positive control in all experimental sets. All these compounds (PI1-4) exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial activities against both micro-organisms wherein compound PI3 showed maximum activity. Biofilm inhibition of both micro-organisms was then evaluated by crystal violet and safranin staining, estimation of biofilm total protein and microscopy methods using sub-MIC dose of these compounds. Results showed that all compounds executed anti biofilm activity against both Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa wherein compound PI3 exhibited maximum activity. In relation with microbial biofilm inhibition, we have observed reduction in bacterial motility, proteolytic activity and secreted exo-polysaccharide (EPS) from both Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa when they were grown in presence of these compounds. While addressing the issue of toxicity on host, we have observed that these molecules exhibited minimum level of R.B.C degradation.

CONCLUSION: These findings establish the antibacterial and anti biofilm properties of 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives (PI1-4).

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Therefore, our current findings demonstrate that 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives (PI1-4) may hold promise to be effective biofilm and microbial inhibitors that may be clinically significant.

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