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JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Clinical analysis of 247 children with whooping cough and the risk factors of severe cases]

Yunge Hu, Quanbo Liu
Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics 2015, 53 (9): 684-9
26757969

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical characteristics of whooping cough in children and analyze the risk factors for severe whooping cough.

METHOD: A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 247 children with whooping cough in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between Jan 2013 and Dec 2014. Of these patients, 126 were male, 121 were female, the median age was 3.1 months (23 days-4 years and eight months old). The patients were divided into two groups, group 1 had infants less than 3 months of age (n=120) and group 2 had infants and young children older than 3 months (n=127) according to their age. On the other hand, the patients were also divided into two groups according to vaccination status: vaccinated group (received diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis, DTP) (n=31) and unvaccinated group (n=188). Pure Bordetella pertussis infection was seen in 106 cases, and 141 cases had mixed infection. Severe disease was seen in 13 cases, and the other 234 cases had the modest disease. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and compared.

RESULT: (1) Bordetella pertussis was identified in 57/680 cases (8.4%) in 2013, and 190/1 856 cases (10.2%) in 2014. The disease could be seen throughout the year, but 182 cases (73.7%) occurred in summer or autumn; 202 cases (81.8%) were less than 6 months. (2) Paroxysmal cough was seen in 238 cases (96.4%) , 61 cases (24.7%) had inspiratory whoop. Infants in group 1 often had episodes of cyanosis, apnea and suffocation (χ² = 19.999, 12.081, 6.508, P<0.05), persistent cough was often seen in group 2 (χ² = 9.885, P<0.05). Complications such as severe pneumonia, pulmonary consolidation and encephalopathy were more common in the group 1 than in group 2 (χ² = 17.340, 6.080, 11.030, 23.545, P<0.05). (3) The length of stay of group 1, and of unvaccinated group was significantly longer than that of group 2 and of vaccinated group (t=19.331, 26.741, P<0.05). (4) Leukocytosis was found in 224 cases (90.7%), 182 cases (73.7%) had predominant lymphocytosis. White blood cell in group 1, unvaccinated group and severe disease group was higher than the corresponding group (t=11.075,13.739,3.469, P<0.05). (5) Patients who had a history of exposure, fever, leukocytosis and pulmonary consolidation or atelectasis on chest imaging were prone to develop into severe pertussis (OR=4.521, 4.900, 1.085, 4.792, 50.400; P<0.05). A total of 244 cases (98.8%) recovered, 3 cases (1.2%) died, they were less than 3 months old and unvaccinated.

CONCLUSION: The number of cases with whooping cough in Chongqing area tends to be rising. The disease occurred mostly in summer and fall. Infants less than 3 months old, unvaccinated with DTP had high susceptibility to pertussis, often had a severe clinical presentation and severe complications, had a high mortality rate.

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