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Meta-analysis of the effect of proton pump inhibitors on obstructive sleep apnea symptoms and indices in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

This study was designed to assess evidence for an association between the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and improvement in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies to evaluate the treatment effect of PPIs on OSA symptoms and indices in patients with GERD. EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were reviewed up to October 2014. From 238 articles, two randomized trials and four prospective cohort studies were selected. In four cohort studies there were no differences in the apnea-hypopnea indices before and after treatment with PPIs (standard mean difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, -0.11 to 0.54). There was moderate heterogeneity among these studies. Two cohort studies revealed significantly decreased apnea indices after treatment (percent change, 31% and 35%), but one showed no significant difference. A significant improvement in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was observed in three cohort studies and one trial. The frequency of apnea attacks recorded in diaries was decreased by 73% in one trial. In conclusion, available studies do not provide enough evidence to make firm conclusions about the effects of PPI treatment on OSA symptoms and indices in patients with concomitant GERD. Controlled clinical trials with larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate these associations. We recommend PPIs in OSA patients with concomitant GERD to treat reflux symptoms. This treatment may improve the quality of sleep without any effect on apnea-hypopnea indices.

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