[Analysis on the change of genotype of enteroviruses associated hand, foot and mouth disease in Beijing during 2013 to 2014]

Qinwei Song, Hui Huang, Jie Deng, Linqing Zhao, Li Deng, Yu Sun, Fang Wang, Yuan Oian, Runan Zhu
Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics 2015, 53 (8): 610-5

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the genotype, epidemic pattern and the characteristics of the disease of enteroviruses during the epidemic season of hand, foot and mouth disease (HMFD) in children from 2013 to 2014 in Beijing to provide the scientific evidence for prevention and treatment of HFMD.

METHOD: During April to September in 2013 and March to October in 2014, a total of 977 throat swabs were collected from children who visited the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics, including 147 from patients with HFMD in 2013, 343 with HFMD, 201 with atypical HFMD, 83 with herpangina, 25 with fever with convulsions, 64 fever with rash and 114 with rash in 2014. Enteroviruses universal type (EV), Enteroviruses type 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus group A 16 (CA16) were detected by real-time RT-PCR respectively. The nucleic acid of specimens which were identified with non-EV71, non-CA16 was tested by nested PCR and analyzed by VP1 sequencing. The detection rate and epidemic pattern of different genotypes of enterovirus were analyzed among different age groups and between 2013 and 2014.

RESULT: Of 977 throat swabs, 80. 1% samples were detected positive for enteroviruses. The positive rates of CA16, EV71, CA6, CA10, CA4 and other EVs were 25. 6% (250/977), 18. 9% (185/977), 20. 0% (195/977), 5. 0% (49/977), 1.5% (15/977) and 9.1% (89/977), respectively. Twenty six of the 89 other EVs included CA2, CA5, CA8, CA9, CA12, CA14, CB2, CB5, E6, E9 and E25, each genotype of which was no more than 3. The nucleotide homologies shared among CA6, CA10 and CA4 strains between 2013 and 2014 were 94. 3% - 100%, 93. 8% - 99. 1% and 92.7% - 99. 8%, respectively. The positive rates of ≤1 year group were 71. 1% (106/149), which was lower than that of other age groups (all P <0. 05), but similar to that of >5 year group (χ2 =1. 181,P = 0. 277). In 2013, the positive rate of EV was 85. 7% (126/147) and the predominant genotype was CA6 54. 8% (69/126), followed by CA16 20. 6% (26/126) and EV71 11. 9% (15/126). In 2014, the positive rate of EV was 85. 4% (293/343) in the 343 children with HFMD, the predominant genotypes were CA16 with the positive rate of 42. 7% (125/293), EV71 with 38. 2% (112/293) and CA6 with only 11. 3% (33/293). In 2014, the positive rates of EV in 201 atypical HFMD, 83 herpangina, 25 fever with convulsions, 64 fever with rash and 114 rash were 83. 6% (168/201), 80. 7% (67/83), 76. 0% (19/25), 64. 1% (41/64) and 60. 5% (69/114), respectively. All genotypes of enteroviruses peaked mainly during May to August every year, but there were no obvious epidemiological pattern about each genotype.

CONCLUSION: CA6 became the main causative agent of HFMD in 2013, however, CA16 and EV71 predominated again in 2014 in Beijing. The clinical manifestations caused by CA6, CA10, CA4 and other genotype of enteroviruses differed from EV71 and CA16. Besides EV71 and CA16, more attention should be paid to CA6, CA10, CA4 and other type of enteroviruses.

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