Pathophysiology of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy and Management of Critical Bleeding Requiring Massive Transfusion

Satoshi Gando, Mineji Hayakawa
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 2016, 42 (2): 155-65
Trauma-induced coagulopathy is caused by multiple factors, such as anemia, hemodilution, hypothermia, acidosis, shock, and serious trauma itself, which affects patient outcomes due to critical bleeding requiring massive transfusion. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with the fibrinolytic phenotype directly caused by trauma and/or traumatic shock has been considered to be the primary pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy. The key to controlling DIC is vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder, that is, trauma itself and hemorrhagic shock. Damage control resuscitation, consisting of damage control surgery, permissive hypotension, and hemostatic resuscitation, aims to control severe trauma and critical bleeding, which is equivalent to managing the underlying disorder of DIC. At present, however, evidence-based practices for damage control resuscitation are lacking. A robust prospective outcome study for damage control resuscitation that considers DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype as the main pathological condition of trauma-induced coagulopathy affecting patient outcome is essential for improving therapeutic strategies.

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