JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Effects of unified surgical scheme for wounds on the treatment outcome of patients with extensive deep burn]

Wenbin Tang, Xiaojian Li, Zhongyuan Deng, Zhi Zhang, Xuhui Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xiaomin Zhong, Bin Chen, Changling Liu
Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns 2015, 31 (4): 254-8
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of unified surgical scheme for wounds on the outcome of patients with extensive deep partial-thickness to full-thickness (briefly referred to as deep) burn.

METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven patients with extensive deep burn hospitalized from July 2007 to November 2012 underwent unified surgery according to area of deep wound (unified scheme group, US). Among them, 57 patients with deep wound area less than 51% TBSA received escharectomy or tangential excision by stages followed by autologous mesh skin grafting; 52 patients with deep wound area from 51% to 80% TBSA underwent escharectomy or tangential excision by stages followed by autologous mesh skin grafting and/or small skin grafting, or escharectomy or tangential excision followed by large sheet of allogeneic skin covering plus autologous mesh skin grafting and/or small skin grafting after the removal of allogeneic skin; 28 patients with deep wound area larger than 80% TBSA received escharectomy or tangential excision by stages followed by autologous microskin grafting plus coverage of large sheet of allogeneic skin, or escharectomy or tangential excision followed by small autologous skin grafting and/or intermingled grafting with small autologous and/or allogeneic skin. Another 120 patients with extensive deep burn hospitalized from January 2002 to June 2007 who did not receive unified surgical scheme were included as control group (C). Except for the surgical methods in group US, in 53 patients with deep wound area less than 51% TBSA in group C escharectomy or tangential excision was performed followed by autologous small skin grafting; in 40 patients with deep wound area from 51% to 80% TBSA in group C escharectomy or tangential excision was performed followed by autologous microskin grafting plus large sheet of allogeneic skin covering, or escharectomy or tangential excision followed by large sheet of allogeneic skin embedded with stamp-like autologous skin; in 27 patients with deep wound area larger than 80% TBSA in group C escharectomy or tangential excision was performed followed by covering with large sheet of allogeneic skin embedded with stamp-like autologous skin without intermingled grafting with small autologous and allogeneic skin in group US. In group US, escharectomy of full-thickness wound in extremities was performed with the use of tourniquet in every patient; saline containing adrenaline was subcutaneously injected when performing escharectomy or tangential excision over the trunk and skin excision; normal skin and healed superficial-thickness wound were used as donor sites for several times of skin excision. The baseline condition of patients and their treatment in the aspects of fluid resuscitation, nutrition support, anti-inflammation, and organ function support were similar between the two groups. The mortality and incidence of complications of all patients and wound healing time and times of surgery of healed patients were compared between the two groups. Data were processed with independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test.

RESULTS: (1) Both the mortality and the incidence of complications of patients with deep wound area less than 51% TBSA in group US were 0, which were close to those of group C (with P values above 0.05). The number of times of surgery of healed patients with deep wound area less than 51% TBSA in group US was 2.4 ± 0.9, which was obviously fewer than that of group C (3.5 ± 1.8, U=-5.085, P<0.001), but with wound healing time close to that of group C (U=-1.480, P>0.05). (2) Both the mortality and the incidence of complications of patients with deep wound area from 51% to 80% TBSA in group US were 0, which were significantly lower than those of group C [both as 20.0% (8/40), with P values below 0.01]. The number of times of surgery and wound healing time of healed patients with deep wound area from 51% to 80% TBSA in group US were respectively 3.0 ± 1.0 and (43 ± 13) d, which were obviously fewer or shorter than those in group C [4.2 ± 2.3 and (61 ± 34) d, with U values respectively -2.491 and -2.186, P values below 0.05]. (3) Both the mortality and the incidence of complications of patients with deep wound area larger than 80% TBSA in group US were 25.0% (7/28), which were close to those of group C [both as 25.9% (7/27), with P values above 0.05]. The number of times of surgery and wound healing time of healed patients with deep wound area larger than 80% TBSA in group US were close to those of group C (with U values respectively -0.276 and -0.369, P values above 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Unified surgical scheme can indirectly decrease the mortality and the incidence of complications of burn patients with deep wound area from 51% to 80% TBSA; it can reduce times of surgery of healed patients of this type and shorten their wound healing time.

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