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Fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1c in pregnancy and the postpartum risk of diabetes among Chinese women with gestational diabetes

Huikun Liu, Shuang Zhang, Leishen Wang, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Nan Li, Min Li, Yijuan Qiao, Huiguang Tian, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Xilin Yang, Zhijie Yu, Gang Hu
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2016, 112: 30-36
26686048

AIMS: Very few studies have assessed the association of fasting and 2h glucose, and HbA1c during pregnancy with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We assessed the association of fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior GDM.

METHODS: A cohort study in 1263 GDM women at 1-5 years after delivery was performed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of fasting and 2h plasma glucose, and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with the risk of diabetes at postpartum.

RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted (age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, current body mass index, family history of diabetes, marital status, education, family income, smoking status, passive smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol drinking, and intake of energy, saturated fat, and dietary fiber) hazard ratios of postpartum diabetes were 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.91) for each 1 mmol/l increase in fasting glucose during pregnancy, 1.63 (95% CI: 1.45-1.84) for each 1 mmol/l increase in 2h glucose during pregnancy, 2.11 (95% CI: 1.50-2.97) for each 1 unit (%) increase in HbA1c during pregnancy. When fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy were entered multivariable-adjusted model simultaneously, 2h glucose and HbA1c but not fasting glucose remained to be significant and positive predictors for postpartum diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS: For women with prior GDM, 2h plasma glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy are independent predictors of postpartum diabetes, but fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy is not.

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