Expression profiling and functional analysis of Toll-like receptors in primary healthy human nasal epithelial cells shows no correlation and a refractory LPS response

J van Tongeren, K I L Röschmann, S M Reinartz, S Luiten, W J Fokkens, E C de Jong, C M van Drunen
Clinical and Translational Allergy 2015, 5: 42

BACKGROUND: Innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on barrier cells like epithelial cells has been shown to influence the regulation of local immune responses. Here we determine expression level variations and functionality of TLRs in nasal epithelial cells from healthy donors.

METHODS: Expression levels of the different TLRs on primary nasal epithelial cells from healthy donors derived from inferior turbinates was determined by RT-PCR. Functionality of the TLRs was determined by stimulation with the respective ligand and evaluation of released mediators by Luminex ELISA.

RESULTS: Primary nasal epithelial cells express different levels of TLR1-6 and TLR9. We were unable to detect mRNA of TLR7, TLR8 and TLR10. Stimulation with Poly(I:C) resulted in a significant increased secretion of IL-4, IL-6, RANTES, IP-10, MIP-1β, VEGF, FGF, IL-1RA, IL-2R and G-CSF. Stimulation with PGN only resulted in significant increased production of IL-6, VEGF and IL-1RA. Although the expression of TLR4 and co-stimulatory molecules could be confirmed, primary nasal epithelial cells appeared to be unresponsive to stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, we observed huge individual differences in TLR agonist-induced mediator release, which did not correlate with the respective expression of TLRs.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that nasal epithelium seems to have developed a delicate system of discrimination and recognition of microbial patterns. Hypo-responsiveness to LPS could provide a mechanism to dampen the inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa in order to avoid a chronic inflammatory response. Individual, differential expression of TLRs on epithelial cells and functionality in terms of released mediators might be a crucial factor in explaining why some people develop allergies to common inhaled antigens, and others do not.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"