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Oral Ondansetron in Management of Dehydrating Diarrhea with Vomiting in Children Aged 3 Months to 5 Years: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Journal of Pediatrics 2016 Februrary
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of oral ondansetron in facilitating successful rehydration of under-5-year-old children suffering from acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration.

STUDY DESIGN: Children (n = 170) aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration were enrolled in this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The participants were randomized to receive either single dose of oral ondansetron (n = 85) or placebo (n = 85) in addition to standard management of dehydration according to World Health Organization guidelines. Failure of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), administration of unscheduled intravenous fluids, and amount of oral rehydration solution intake in 4 hours were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcome measures included duration of dehydration correction, number of vomiting episodes, adverse effects, and caregiver satisfaction.

RESULTS: Failure of ORT was significantly less in children receiving ondansetron compared with those receiving placebo (31% vs 62%; P < .001; relative risk 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.72). Almost one-half of the children in the ondansetron group received intravenous fluids compared with those in the placebo group, but it was not statistically significant (P = .074; relative risk 0.56, 95% CI 0.30-1.07). The oral rehydration solution consumption was significantly more in the ondansetron group (645 mL vs 554 mL; mean difference 91 mL; 95% CI: 35-148 mL). Patients in the ondansetron group also showed faster rehydration, lesser number of vomiting episodes, and better caregiver satisfaction.

CONCLUSION: A single oral dose of ondansetron, given before starting ORT to children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea and vomiting results in better oral rehydration.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry of India: CTRI-2011/07/001916.

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